In Chemistry, Agriculture and Geology near infrared measurements (700-2500 nm) are usually made in transmission and reflection and are used to probe the molecular structure and composition of materials. Near infrared is preferred over mid-infrared when measurements need to be made at a distance or with little or no sample preparation. The challenge is that the resulting spectra are difficult to interpret manually. Interpretation is frequently performed with the aid of multivariate analysis. This type of interpretation makes the choice of instrument characteristics less obvious but the physical and chemical fundamentals do not change.